A. Absolutely, and fuel cards are a key control.
Most what open-loop networks do is controlled by the Merchant Category Code. So, for example, if Walmart sold you fuel, the MCC code is going to be “convenience/chain.” So a vehicle manager would have to say: “I want to allow that.” But can drivers then purchase products inside, vs. at the station?
There are ways open-loop networks can control that, but it’s not as clean cut as the product-type controls on a closed-loop network, where everything is restricted by the product that’s bought. So even though service locations and fueling stations will have a convenience store attached to them, if a fleet says, “I only want driver to buy fuel,” the drivers are only going to get fuel if they are on a closed-loop network. With an open-loop network, you can’t be sure.